Государственная земельная политика в Сибири В 20-80-е гг. ХХ в


Перевод названия: State land policy in Siberia in 1920s-1980s

Тип публикации: статья из журнала

Год издания: 2013

Ключевые слова: nationalization, land use, land management, relocation, национализация, землепользование, землеустройство, переселение

Аннотация: Рассматривается эволюция государственной политики в советской Сибири. В 70-летней истории земельного строя в СССР автор условно выделил три периода, общим для которых была государственная форма собственности на землю. Именно под углом национализации земель рассматриваются все земельные отношения в СССР и Сибири. Благодаря националиПоказать полностьюзации государству отошел огромный фонд земли, который позволил власти создать систему государственной опеки над земледельческим населением, вмешиваться в хозяйство землепользователя, руководить самим процессом земледелия. This article analyzes the land system in the USSR and Siberia in the 1920-80s that had no legal basis of fundamental differences. The author divided the 70-year history of the land system in the USSR into three periods. Their common feature was the state ownership of land. Nationalization of land defined all land relations in the USSR and Siberia. Due to the nationalization of the state withdrew a huge fund of land, which allowed the government to establish a system of state guardianship of agricultural population, to intervene in the economy of the land user, to lead the process of farming. In the first phase of the land system (1920-1928) individual peasant farming dominated. During this period, power in the land policy implemented social-class approach by: a) the refusal from the Stolypin agrarian reform with its emphasis on the creation of two social groups of private land owners and landless population, b) the elimination of certain categories of holders of land and transfer of these land to the peasants, mostly landless, c) the introduction of collective and state land management forms. During this period, in Siberia, there was the strengthening of communal forms of land use, all taxable differences of rural citizens were destroyed, during the relocation interests of old-timers, immigrants, and the nomadic travellers were taken into account, landless people were given land. In the second period (1929-1934) - a period of complete collectivization - there was an active process of forming the collective and state land use types by land indication and simplified (incomplete) land management, in fact, individual land management was eliminated. In general, the collectivization of land destroyed the old relations. Instead, there was collective form of communal land tenure. The third period covers the State Land Policy in 1935 - the second half of 1980s. On February 17, 1935 the new Model Rules of the Agricultural Artel collective land use as an independent land-legal institution received its legal registration. During this period of primary interest are the mechanisms of functioning and sustainability of the new economic and social structure, its ability to reproduce itself in the most optimal form and the most optimal way. The most important milestones in the national land policy were: the creation of stable land use by state and collective farms, overcoming the legacy of land use and land management of the first third of the 20th century, ordering of household land, consolidation of collective farms, development of a network of state farms (sovkhoz), including the virgin ones. In general, the agrarian policy of the state during 1935 -the second half of the 1980s despite all its contradictions and inconsistencies provided the forward movement of the society towards self-sufficiency in food, and industry - with raw materials. The second half of the 1980s in connection with the transition to a liberal model of economy witnessed a new period in the history of the land system, which requires separate analysis.

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Журнал: Вестник Томского государственного университета

Выпуск журнала: 366

Номера страниц: 82-86

ISSN журнала: 15617793

Место издания: Томск

Издатель: Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет


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